The Stowers Institute For Medical Research



Lab Members




Stowers Institute


Amina, M. B., Miura, N., Uddin, M.K.F., Islam, M.J., Yoshida, N., Iseki, S., Kume, T., Trainor, P.A. Saitsu, H. and Aoto, K. (2016). Foxc2CreERT2 knock-in mice mark stage-specific Foxc2-expressing cells during mouse organogenesis. Congenital Anomalies (in press).

Sakai, D. and Trainor, P.A. (2016). Face off against ROS: Tcof1/Treacle safeguards neuroepithelial cells and progenitor neural crest cells from oxidative stress during craniofacial development. Dev Growth Differ 58(7):577-85

Noack Watt, K.E., Achilleos, A., Neben, C., Merrill, A.M. and Trainor, P.A. (2016).
The roles of RNA Polymerase 1 subunits Polr1c and Polr1d in craniofacial development and the pathogenesis of Treacher Collins syndrome. PLOS Genetics 12(7):e1006187

Lenti, E., Farinello, D., Yokoyama, K., Penkov, D., Castagnaro, L., Lavorgna. G., Wuputra. K., Sandel, L. L., Butler Tjaden N. E., Bernassola, F., Caridi, N., De Antoni, A., Wagner, M., Kozinc, K., Neiderreither, K., Blasi, F., Pasini, D., Majdic, G., Tonon, G., Trainor, P.A. and Brendolan, A (2016). TLX1 Controls Retinoic Acid Signaling to Ensure Spleen Development. J Clinical Investigation 126(7):2452-64

Trainor, P.A. (2016). Developmental Biology: We are all Walking Mutants. In: Essays on Developmental Biology (P Wassarman: Ed) Elsevier, New York. Curr Topics Dev Biol 117:523-538

Conley, Z.R., Hague, M., Kurosaka, H., Dixon, J., Dixon, M.J and Trainor, P.A. (2016). A quantitative method for defining high-arched palate using the Tcof1+/- mutant mouse as a model. Dev Biol 415(2):296-305

Taneyhill. L., Hoover-Fong, J. Lozanoff, S., Marcucio, R., Richtsmeier, J. and Trainor, P.A. (2016). The Society for Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology 38th Annual Meeting. Am J Med Genet A 170(7):1732-53

Sakai D., Dixon J., Achilleos, A., Dixon M.J. and Trainor P.A. (2016). Prevention of Treacher Collins syndrome craniofacial anomalies in mouse models via maternal antioxidant supplementation. Nature Commun 7:10328

Achilleos, A. and Trainor, P.A. (2015). Mouse Models of Rare Craniofacial Disorders. In: Craniofacial Development (Yang Chai, editor). Curr Topics Dev Biol 115:411-458. Academic Press, UK

Cunningham. T.J., Kumar, S., Brade, T., Sandell, L.L., Lewandoski, M., Trainor, P.A., Colas, A., Mercola, M. and Duester, G. (2015). Retinoic Acid Activity in Undifferentiated Neural Progenitors is Sufficient to Fulfil its Role in Restricting Fgf8 Expression for Somitogenesis. PLOS One 10(9):e0137894

Purcell, P. and Trainor, P.A. (2015). The mighty chondrocyte. No bones about it!
J. Dental Research 94(12):1625-7

Diaz, R.E. and Trainor, P.A (2015). Clefting, skeletal reduction and skeletal ‘re-evolution’ of mesopodial elements drive the evolution and radiation of Chameleons. BMC Evolutionary Biology 15:184-208

Diaz, R. E., Anderson, C.V. Baumann, D. Jewell, D., Kupronis, R., Piraquive, C., Schieszer. J., Winter, K. and Trainor, P.A. (2015). Captive care, raising and breeding of the Veiled Chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus. Cold Spring Harb Protoc (10):pdb.prot087718

Diaz, R. E., Anderson, C.V. Baumann, D. Jewell, D., Kupronis, R., Piraquive, C., Schieszer. J., Winter, K. and Trainor, P.A. (2015). The Veiled Chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus Duméril and Duméril 1851: A model for studying reptile bodyplan development and evolution. Cold Spring Harb Protoc (10):pdb.emo087700

Stower, M. Diaz, R.E., White Crother, M. Crother, B. Marco Llorente, A., Trainor, P.A., Srinivas, S. and Bertocchini, F. (2015). Bi-modal strategy of gastrulation in Chameleon and Turtle embryos. Developmental Dynamics 244(9):1144-1157

Aoto, K. Sandell, L. L., Butler Tjaden, N.E, Yuen K., Noack Watt. K.E, Black, B. Durnin, M. and Trainor, P.A. (2015). Mef2c-F10N enhancer driven β-galactosidase (LacZ) and Cre recombinase mice facilitate analyses of gene function and lineage fate in neural crest cells. Dev Biol 402(1):3-16

Richtsmeier, J., Jones, M., Lozanoff, S. and Trainor, P.A. (2015). CONFERENCE REPORT: The Society for Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology 37th Annual Meeting. Am J Med Genet A 167(7):1455-1473

Trainor, P.A. and Richtsmeier, (2015). Facing up to the challenges of advancing Craniofacial Research. Am J Med Genet A 167(7):1451-1454

Weaver, K.N., Noack Watt, K.E., Hufnagel, R.B., Sund, K.L., Navajas Acedo, J., Bender, T., Hopkin, R.J., Lohmann, D.R., Trainor, P.A., Wieczorek, D. and Saal, H.M. (2015). Acrofacial dysostosis, Cincinnati type; a mandibulofacial dysostosis syndrome with limb anomalies caused by POLR1A dysfunction. Am J Hum Genet 96(5):765-74

Barriga, E.H., Trainor, P.A., Bronner, M. and Mayor, R. (2015). Comparison of animal models for studying neural crest development: is the mouse different? Development 142(9):1555-60

Yelick, P. and Trainor, P.A. (2015). Ribosomopathies: Global Process, Tissue Specific Defects. Rare Diseases 3(1):e1025185

Hiroshi Kurosaki, H., Trainor, P.A., Leroux-Berger M. and Iulianella, A. (2015). Cranial nerve development requires co-ordinated Shh and canonical Wnt signalling. PLOS One 10(3):e0120821

Achilleos, A. Huffman, N.T., Seidah, N.G., Trainor, P.A. and Gorski J.P. (2015) SKI-loss-of-function perturbs cell signalling and the extracellular matrix resulting in abnormal somitogenesis and scoliosis. Human Molecular Genetics 24(10):2884-98

Trainor, P.A. (2015). Neural Crest and Placodes (P.A.Trainor: Ed). Curr Top Dev Biol Vol 111 Elsevier, New York

Munoz, W.A. and Trainor, P.A. (2015). Neural Crest Cell Evolution: How and when did a Neural Crest Cell become a Neural Crest Cell: In Neural Crest and Placodes (P.A.Trainor: Ed). Curr Top Dev Biol 111:3-26 Elsevier, New York

Trainor, P.A. (2015). Neural Crest and Placodes – Preface. In: Neural Crest and Placodes (P.A.Trainor: Ed). Curr Top Dev Biol 111:xv-xvi . Elsevier, New York

Trainor, P.A. and Johnson, R (2015). Organogenesis Special Issue – Preface. Dev Dyn 244(3):225-6

Aoto, K. and Trainor, P. A. (2015). Co-ordinated brain and craniofacial development depends upon Ptch1/XIAP regulation of cell survival. Human Molecular Genetics 24(3):698-713

Frisdal, A. and Trainor, P.A (2014). Development and Evolution of the Pharyngeal Apparatus. WIRES Developmental Biology wdev.147

Liu, D., Xi, C.He, Qian, P., Barker, N., Trainor, P.A, Clevers, H., Liu, H. and Li, L. (2014). Leucine-rich Repeat-containing G-protein Coupled Receptor 5 Marks Short-term Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells during Mouse Embryonic Development. Journal Biological Chemistry 289(34):23809-16

Callier, P., Calvel, P., Matevossian, A., Makrythanasis, P., Kurosaka, H., Thauvin-Robinet, C., Bernard, P., Borel, C., Mazaud-Guittot, S., Rolland, A., Guipponi, M., Zimmermann, C., Conne, B., Santoni, F., Vannier, A., Lambert, S., Huet, F., Mugneret, F., Jaruzelska, J., Laurence, F., Wilhelm, D., Jégou, B., Trainor, P.A., Resh, M.D., Antonarakis, S.E. and  Nef S. (2014). Loss of function mutation in the palmitoyl-transferase HHAT leads to syndromic 46,XY disorder of sex development by impeding Hedgehog protein palmitoylation and signalling. PLOS Genetics 10(5): e1004340

Kurosaka, H., Iulianella A., Williams, T. and Trainor P.A. (2014). Critical Interaction Between Hh and Wnt Signaling in Nasal Process Growth and Fusion, and in the Pathogenesis of Cleft Lip. Journal Clinical Investigation. Abstract

Young, N. M., Hu, D., Lainoff, A.J., Smith, F., Diaz, R., Tucker A. S., Trainor P.A., Schneider R. S., Hallgrimsson, B. and Marcucio, R (2014) Embryonic Bauplans and the Developmental Origins of Facial Diversity and Constraint. Development 141:1059-1063. Abstract

Noack Watt, K. and Trainor P.A. (2014). Neurocristopathies: Disorders of Neural Crest Cell Development. In: Neural Crest Cells: Evolution Development and Disease (ed Paul Trainor) Elsevier, New York. Abstract

Sakai, D and Trainor, P.A. (2014). Gene transfer techniques in whole embryo cultured post-implantation mouse embryos. Methods Mol Biol. 1092:227-34. Abstract

Sandell, L. L., Tjaden, E. N., Barlow, A and Trainor, P.A (2014). Cochleovestibular nerve development is integrated with migratory neural crest cells. Developmental Biology 385(2):200–210. Abstract

Lee, R.T.H.,  Nagai, H., Nakaya, Y., Sheng, G. Trainor, P.A., Weston, J.A. and Thiery, JP (2013). Cell delamination in the mesencephalic neural fold and its implication for the origin of ectomesenchyme. Development 140(24):4890-902. Abstract

Billings, S., Pierzchalski, K., Butler Tjaden, N.E., Pang, X., Trainor, P.A. Kane, M.A. and Moise A.R. (2013) The Retinaldehyde Reductase DHRS3 Is Essential for Preventing Formation of Excess Retinoic Acid During Embryonic Development. FASEB J. 27(12):4877-89. Abstract

Inman, K.E. Kume, T. and Trainor, P.A. (2013). Interaction between Foxc1 and Fgf8 during mammalian jaw patterning and in the pathogenesis of Syngnathia. PLoS Genetics 9(12): e1003949. Abstract

Trainor P.A and Merrill A.E. (2014). Ribosome Biogenesis in Skeletal Development and the Pathogenesis of Skeletal Disorders. Biochim Biophys Acta. Abstract

Trainor P.A. and Andrews B.T (2013). Facial Dysostoses: Etiology, Pathogenesis and Management. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 163(4):283-94. Abstract

Takeda, S., Liu, H., Sasagawa, S., Dong, Y., Trainor, P.A., Cheng, E, H-Y. and Hsieh, J. J-D. (2013) HGF-MET signals via the MLL-ETS2 complex in hepatocellular carcinoma. Journal Clinical Investigation 123(7):3154–3165. Abstract

Butler, N. E. and Trainor, P.A. (2013). The Developmental Etiology and Pathogenesis of Hirschsprung Disease. Translational Research 162 (1):1–15. Abstract

Wynn, M.L., Rupp, P., Trainor, P.A., Schnell, S. and Kulesa, P.M. (2013). Follow-the-leader cell migration requires biased cell-cell contact and local microenvironmental signals. Physical Biology 10(3):035003. Abstract

Cunningham. T.J., Zhao, X., Sandell, L.L., Evans, S.M., Trainor, P.A. and Duester, G. (2013). Antagonism between retinoic acid and fibroblast growth factor signaling during limb development. Cell Reports 3(5):1503-11. Abstract

Trainor, P.A. (2013). Molecular blueprint for craniofacial morphogenesis and development. In: Stem cells in craniofacial development, regeneration and repair (Huang and Thesleff eds). Wiley-Blackwell John Wiley & Sons. Abstract

Bhatt, S., Diaz, R. and Trainor, P.A. (2013). Signals and switches in Mammalian neural crest cell differentiation. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 5(2). Abstract

Barlow, A., Dixon, J., Dixon, M. and Trainor, P.A. (2013). Tcof1 acts as a modifier of Pax3 during enteric nervous system development and in the pathogenesis of colonic aganglionosis. Human Molecular Genetics 22(6):1206-17. Abstract

Yasukawa, T., Bhatt, S., Takeuchi, T., Kawauchi, J., Takahashi, H., Tsutusi, A., Muraoka, T., Inoue, M., Tsuda, A., Kitajima, S., Conaway, R.C., Conaway, J.W. Trainor, P.A., and Aso, T (2012). Transcriptional Elongation Factor Elongin A Regulates Retinoic Acid-Induced Gene Expression during Neuronal Differentiation. Cell Reports 2(5):1129-36. Abstract

Warr, N., Carre, G.-A., Siggers, P., Vitos, J., Brixey, R., Pope, M., Bogani, D., Childers, M., Wells, S., Scudamore, C., Nebreda, A.R., Trainor, P.A. and Greenfield, A. (2012). Gadd45g and Map3k4 interactions regulate mouse testis determination via p38-mediated control of Sry expression. Developmental Cell 23(5):1020-31. Abstract

Sandell, L. L, Kurosaka, H. and Trainor, P.A. (2012).  Wholemount nuclear fluorescent  imaging: Convenient documentation of embryo morphology. Genesis 50(11):844-50. Abstract

Dennis, J.F., Kurosaka, H., Iulianella, A., Pace, J., Thomas, N., Beckham, S., Williams, T. and Trainor, P.A. (2012) Mutations in Hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat) perturb Hedgehog signaling, resulting in severe craniofacial defects consistent with acrania-holoprosencephaly-agnathia. PLOS Genetics 8(10):e1002927. Abstract

Achilleos, A., Trainor, P.A. (2012). Neural crest stem cells: Discovery, properties and potential for therapy. Cell Research. 22(2):288.304. Abstract

Barlow, A.J., Dixon, J., Dixon, M.J., Trainor, P.A. (2012). Balancing neural crest cell intrinsic processes with those of the microenvironment enable complete enteric nervous system formation. Human Molecular Genetics. 21(8):1782-1793. Abstract

Sandell, L.L., Lynn, M.L., Inman, K.E., McDowell, W., Trainor, P.A. (2012). RDH10 Oxidation of Vitamin A Is a Critical Control Step in Synthesis of Retinoic Acid during Mouse Embryogenesis. PLoS ONE. 7(2):e30698. Abstract

Sakai, D., Dixon, J., Dixon, M.J., Trainor, P.A. (2012). Mammalian Neurogenesis Requires Treacle-Plk1 for Precise Control of Spindle Orientation, Mitotic Progression, and Maintenance of Neural Progenitor Cells. PLoS Genetics. 8(3):e1002566. Abstract

Farjo, K.M., Moiseyev, G., Nikolaeva, O., Sandell, L.L., Trainor, P.A and Ma J-X. (2011). RDH10 is the primary enzyme responsible for the first step of embryonic Vitamin A metabolism and retinoic acid synthesis. Developmental Biology. 357(2):347-355. Abstract

Kumar, S., Sandell, L.L., Trainor, P.A., Koentgen, F. and Duester, G. (2012). Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases: Retinoid Metabolic Effects in Mouse Knockout Models. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. 1821(1):198-205. Abstract

Remboutsika, E., Elkouris M., Iulianella A., Andoniadou, C., Poulou, M., Mitsiadis, T.A., Trainor, P.A. and Lovell-Badge, R. (2011). Flexibility of Neural Stem Cells. Frontiers in Physiology 2:16. Abstract

Hochheiser, H, Aronow, B.J., Artinger, K., Beaty, T.H., Brinkley, J.F., Chai, Y., Clouthier, D., Cunningham, M.L., Dixon, M., Donahue, L.R., Fraser, S.E., Iwata, J., Marazita, M.L., Murray, J.C., Murray, S., Postlethwait, J., Potter, S., Shapiro, L., Spritz, R., Visel, A., Weinberg, S.M. and Trainor, P.A.(2011). The FaceBase Consortium: A Comprehensive Program to Facilitate Craniofacial Research. Developmental Biology 355 (2):175-182. Abstract

Cunningham, T.J., Chatzi, C., Sandell, L.L., Trainor, P.A , and Duester, G. (2011). Rdh10 Mutants Deficient in Limb Bud Retinoic Acid Signaling Exhibit Normal Limb Patterning but Display Interdigital Webbing. Developmental Dynamics 240(5):1142-1150. Abstract

Sandell, L.L., Iulianella, A., Melton, K. Lynn, M., Walker, Inman, K., Bhatt S, Leroux-Berger, M., Crawford, M., Jones, N., Dennis., J., Trainor, P.A (2011). A phenotype-driven ENU mutagenesis screen identifies novel alleles with functional roles in early mouse craniofacial development. Genesis 49(4):342-359. Abstract

Crull, K. E., Su, F., Swartz, M., Eberhart, J., McLennan, R., Chen, Y. and Trainor, P.A. (2011). Electroporation of Chick and Mouse Embryos. In: Imaging in Developmental Biology: A Laboratory Manual. (Sharpe, Wong, Yuste eds). CSHL Press, New York.

Trainor, P.A. (2010). Craniofacial birth defects: the role of neural crest cells in the etiology and pathogenesis of Treacher Collins syndrome and the potential for prevention. Am J Med Genet A. 152A(12):2984-94. Abstract

Inman, K.E., Ezin, M, Bronner-Fraser, M. and Trainor, P.A. (2010)
Cardiac Neural crest Cells. In: Heart Development and Regeneration Volume 1:417-434. (Rosenthal and Harvey, eds), Elsevier.

Pyrgaki C, Trainor P, Hadjantonakis AK, Niswander L. Dynamic imaging of mammalian neural tube closure. Dev Biol. 2010;344:941-947. Abstract

Iulianella A, Sharma M, Vanden Heuvel GB, Trainor PA. Cux2 functions downstream of Notch signaling to regulate dorsal interneuron formation in the spinal cord. Development.2009;136:2329-2334. Abstract

Gibb S, Zagorska A, Melton K, Tenin G, Vacca I, Trainor P, Maroto M, Dale JK. Interfering with Wnt signalling alters the periodicity of the segmentation clock. Dev Biol.2009;330:21-31. Abstract

Sakai D, Trainor PA. Treacher Collins syndrome: Unmasking the role of Tcof1/treacle. Int J Biochem Cell Biol.2009;41:1229-1232. Abstract

Trainor PA, Dixon J, Dixon MJ. Treacher Collins syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis and prevention. Eur J Hum Genet.2009;17:275-283. Abstract

Bogni S, Trainor P, Natarajan D, Krumlauf R, Pachnis V. Non-cell-autonomous effects of Ret deletion in early enteric neurogenesis. Development.2008;135:3007-3011. Abstract

Jones NC, Lynn ML, Gaudenz K, Sakai D, Aoto K, Rey JP, Glynn EF, Ellington L, Du C, Dixon J, Dixon MJ, Trainor PA. Prevention of the neurocristopathy Treacher Collins syndrome through inhibition of p53 function. Nat Med.2008;14:125-133.  Abstract  Comments about the paper may be found in Nat Med. 2008 Feb;14(2):115-6. Abstract

Iulianella A, Sharma M, Durnin M, Vanden Heuvel GB, Trainor PA. Cux2 (Cutl2) integrates neural progenitor development with cell-cycle progression during spinal cord neurogenesis. Development.2008;135:729-741.  Abstract

Sandell LL, Sanderson BW, Moiseyev G, Johnson T, Mushegian A, Young K, Rey JP, Ma JX, Staehling-Hampton K, Trainor PA. RDH10 is essential for synthesis of embryonic retinoic acid and is required for limb, craniofacial, and organ development. Genes Dev.2007;21:1113-1124. Abstract

Crane JF, Trainor PA. Neural Crest Stem and Progenitor Cells. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol.2006;22:267-286. Abstract

Dixon J, Jones NC, Sandell LL, Jayasinghe SM, Crane J, Rey JP, Dixon MJ, Trainor PA. Tcof1/Treacle is required for neural crest cell formation and proliferation deficiencies that cause craniofacial abnormalities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.2006;103:13403-13408. Abstract

Dale JK, Malapert P, Chal J, Vilhais-Neto G, Maroto M, Johnson T, Jayasinghe S, Trainor P, Herrmann B, Pourquie O. Oscillations of the snail genes in the presomitic mesoderm coordinate segmental patterning and morphogenesis in vertebrate somitogenesis. Dev Cell.2006;10:355-366. Abstract

Noden DM, Trainor PA. Relations and interactions between cranial mesoderm and neural crest populations. J Anat.2005;207:575-601. Abstract

Kulesa P, Ellies DL, Trainor PA. Comparative analysis of neural crest cell death, migration, and function during vertebrate embryogenesis. Dev Dyn.2004;229:14-29. Abstract

Iulianella A, Melton KR, Trainor PA. Somitogenesis: breaking new boundaries. Neuron.2003;40:11-14. Abstract

Iulianella A, Vanden Heuvel G, Trainor PA. Dynamic expression of murine Cux2 in craniofacial, limb, urogenital and neuronal primordia. Gene Expr Patterns.2003;3:571-577. Abstract

Trainor, PA.  Development. The bills of qucks and duails. Science. 2003;299:523-524. 

Trainor PA, Krumlauf R.  Riding the crest of Wnt signaling. Science. 2002;297:781-783.

Trainor PA
, Ariza-McNaughton L, Krumlauf R.  Role of the isthmus and FGFs in resolving the paradox of neural crest plasticity and prepatterning. Science. 2002;295: 1288-1291. Comments about this paper may be found in Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3:254 and Nature 416: 493-494. To link to the Nature commentary, you must register with their site (free account).

Trainor PA, Sobieszczuk D, Wilkinson D, Krumlauf R. Signalling between the hindbrain and paraxial tissues dictates neural crest migration pathways. Development. 2002;129: 433-442. Abstract.

Gavalas A, Trainor PA, Ariza-McNaughton L, Krumlauf R. Synergy between Hoxa1 and Hoxb1: The relationship between arch patterning and the generation of cranial neural crest. Development. 2001;125:3017-3027. Abstract.

Trainor PA, Krumlauf R.  Patterning cranial neural crest: roles for hindbrain segmentation and plasticity of Hox gene expression. Nature Rev Neurosci.  2000;1:116-124. Abstract.

Manzanares M, Wada H, Itasaki N, Trainor PA, Krumlauf R, Holland PW. Conservation and elaboration of Hox gene regulation during evolution of the vertebrate head. Nature.2000;408:854-857. Abstract

Manzanares M, Trainor PA*, Ariza-McNaughton L, Nonchev S, Krumlauf R. Dorsal patterning defects in the hindbrain, roof plate and skeleton in the dreher (dr(J)) mouse mutant. Mech Dev.2000;94:147-156. Abstract

Golding JP, Trainor PA*, Krumlauf R, Gassmann M. Defects in pathfinding by cranial neural crest cells in mice lacking the neuregulin receptor ErbB4. Nat Cell Biol.2000;2:103-109. Abstract

Trainor PA,
Krumlauf R. Plasticity in mouse neural crest cells reveals a new patterning role for cranial mesoderm. Nat Cell Biol.2000;2:96-102. Abstract