About Jay

Jay Unruh

Jay Unruh
Co-Director of Microscopy, Imaging, and Big Data
Stowers Institute for Medical Research
1000 East 50th Street
Kansas City, MO 64110

Previous Positions:

2015 - 2019
Co-Head of Microscopy
Stowers Institute for Medical Research
2010 - 2015
Research Advisor
Stowers Institute for Medical Research
2007 - 2010
Research Specialist II, Stowers Microscopy Center
Stowers Institute for Medical Research
2006 - 2007
Postdoctoral Researcher, Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics
University of California-Irvine
2001-2006 Ph.D. Chemistry, "Development of Fluorescence Spectroscopy Tools for the Measurement of Biomolecular Dynamics and Heterogeneity"
University of Kansas
1997-2001 B.S. Biochemistry
John Brown University

Research Interests

While my background heavily emphasized microscopy instrumentation development, my current research focus is on biological applications of such technologies. I believe that one of the greatest impediments to the applied use of microscopy technologies is the availability and advanced knowledge of such technologies within the biological community. The technical microscopy literature is rife with well-meaning inventions that may never be utilized for to solve real biological problems because they failed to account for the complexity of biological systems or because their complexity is such that they are inaccessible to biological researchers. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in particular is an excellent example of this dichotomy. I would estimate that papers developing variants of this technology outnumber papers solving real-world problems with it by at least an order of magnitude. The problem becomes even more pronounced when considering live cell applications of this technology. This is despite the existence of this technique for almost 4 decades. Throughout the academic community, such multidisciplinary technical needs are typically met through collaborations between departments or institutions. Nevertheless, such collaborations are complicated by communication barriers, diverging interests, and instrumentation needs.

At Stowers, we have sought a different approach to such problems. By providing dedicated technological support through core facilities and research advisors, we hope to encourage not only routine use of advanced technologies but technology developments that can only be anticipated in the context of an important biological problem. Over the past several years I have collaborated on a number of high impact papers solving important biological problems by developing new technologies. It is my hope that as we demonstrate the utility of these methods for solving complex biological problems they will gain widespread use within the biological community. Here are a few highlights (see below for a complete publication list):

Super-Resolution Imaging of Cell Division Machinery. While super-resolution microscopy has become a field unto itself in recent years, there remain significant barriers to its application to typical in situ biological questions. I have been involved in two recent papers that make significant progress towards that goal by extending the effective reach of structured illumination microscopy. The first paper, in collaboration with the Jaspersen lab (Burns et al., eLife, 2015), uses image alignment and averaging to capture many high confidence of the yeast spindle pole body during replication with endogenously tagged proteins. This has allowed us to map out the process of SPB duplication in unprecedented detail, uncovering previously unseen details including an asymmetric bend in the sfi1 half-bridge and pre-insertion duplication of membrane components. The second paper, in collaboration with the Hawley lab (Lake et al., eLife, 2015), uses 3D tracing and computational straightening to assess positioning of recombination nodules and their newly associated proteins in drosophila meiotic synaptonemal complexes.

Yeast Kinetochore Copy Number Quantitation. In this collaboration with the Jennifer Gerton lab, we developed a novel method to quantitate the number of EGFP molecules in a spot in living budding yeast cells. We used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to obtain the molecular brightness of a single EGFP molecule in live yeast. We then used that molecular brightness to calibrate the number of Cse4-EGFP molecules at the centromere in a cell-cycle specific manner. Surprisingly, our method suggests that the copy number of Cse4-EGFP per centromere increases from one to two during anaphase. Bleaching of the mother and daughter centromeres at the first point where they can be resolved leads to recovery during anaphase, further demonstrating this transition and demonstrating that new Cse4-EGFP is recruited to the centromere during the transition. Please see our 2012 Cell paper below for more details. We recently extended this work with two papers on kinetochore protein dynamics during anaphase (Dhatchinamoorthy et al, JCB 2017 and 2019).

Line Scanning FCCS at the Yeast Nuclear Envelope. In this collaboration with the Sue Jaspersen lab, we utilized fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy to observe the codiffusion of mps3 and ndc1 at the yeast nuclear envelope but away from the spindle pole body where they are known to interact. Given that ndc1 has a shared function in both spindle pole body and nuclear pore complex insertion, we hypothesized that mps3 was acting to balance these roles and possibly shuttle ndc1 between these compartments. Consistent with this hypothesis, mps3 deletion is rescued by deletion of the nuclear pore complex ndc1 interactor, pom152, presumably due to increased relative levels at the spindle pole body. Our FCCS studies confirmed that an mps3-ndc1 complex is formed at the nuclear envelope but away from the spindle pole body. The fraction of ndc1 bound by mps3 increases dramatically after pom152 deletion, confirming the role of mps3 in partitioning between these spaces. Please see the Scanning FCCS protocols page and our 2014 JCB paper for more details.


84. Liu X, Zhang Y, Wen Z, Hao Y, Banks CAS, Lange JJ, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Florens L, Abmayr SM, Workman JL, Washburn MP. Driving integrative structural modeling with serial capture affinity purification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020;117:31861. Pubmed

83. Geymonat M, Peng Q, Guo Z, Yu Z, Unruh JR, Jaspersen SL, Segal M. Orderly assembly underpinning built-in asymmetry in the yeast centrosome duplication cycle requires cyclin-dependent kinase. Elife 2020;9. Pubmed

82. Tao F, Soffers J, Hu D, Chen S, Gao X, Zhang Y, Zhao C, Smith SE, Unruh JR, Zhang D, Tsuchiya D, Venkatraman A, Zhao M, Li Z, Qian P, Parmely T, He XC, Washburn M, Florens L, Perry JM, Zeitlinger J, Workman J, Li L. β-Catenin and Associated Proteins Regulate Lineage Differentiation in Ground State Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells. Stem Cell Reports 2020;15:662. Pubmed

81. Billmyre KK, Cahoon CK, Heenan GM, Wesley ER, Yu Z, Unruh JR, Takeo S, Hawley RS. X chromosome and autosomal recombination are differentially sensitive to disruptions in SC maintenance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019; pii: 201910840. Pubmed

80. Nil Z, Millán RH, Gerbich T, Leal P, Yu Z, Saraf A, Sardiu M, Lange JJ, Yi K, Unruh J, Slaughter B, Si K. Amyloid-like Assembly Activates a Phosphatase in the Developing Drosophila Embryo.. Cell 2019;178:1403. Pubmed

79. Navajas Acedo J, Voas MG, Alexander R, Woolley T, Unruh JR, Li H, Moens C, Piotrowski T. PCP and Wnt pathway components act in parallel during zebrafish mechanosensory hair cell orientation.. Nat Commun 2019;10:399. Pubmed

78. Potapova TA, Unruh JR, Yu Z, Rancati G, Li H, Stampfer MR, Gerton JL. Superresolution microscopy reveals linkages between ribosomal DNA on heterologous chromosomes.. J. Cell Biol. 2019;218:2492. Pubmed

77. Paul P, Ramachandran S, Xia S, Unruh JR, Conkright-Fincham J, Li R. Dopamine receptor antagonists as potential therapeutic agents for ADPKD. PLoS One. 2019;14:e0216220. Pubmed

76. Dhatchinamoorthy K, Unruh JR, Lange JJ, Levy M, Slaughter BD, Gerton JL. The stoichiometry of the outer kinetochore is modulated by microtubule-proximal regulatory factors. J Cell Biol. 2019; jcb.201810070. Pubmed

75. Chen J, Gardner JM, Yu Z, Smith SE, McKinney S, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Jaspersen SL. Yeast centrosome components form a noncanonical LINC complex at the nuclear envelope insertion site. J Cell Biol. 2019; jcb.201809045. Pubmed

74. Weems JC, Unruh JR, Slaughter BD, Conaway RC, Conaway JW. Imaging-based assays for investigating functions of the RNA polymerase II elongation factor Elongin and the Elongin ubiquitin ligase. Methods. 2019; pii: S1046-2023(18)30290-1. Pubmed

73. Smoyer CJ, Smith SE, Gardner JM, McCroskey S, Unruh JR, Jaspersen SL. Distribution of Proteins at the Inner Nuclear Membrane Is Regulated by the Asi1 E3 Ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2019;genetics.301911.2019. Pubmed

72. Zhao M, Tao F, Venkatraman A, Li Z, Smith SE, Unruh J, Chen S, Ward C, Qian P, Perry JM, Marshall H, Wang J, He XC, Li L. N-Cadherin-Expressing Bone and Marrow Stromal Progenitor Cells Maintain Reserve Hematopoietic Stem Cells. Cell Rep. 2019;26:652. Pubmed

71. Unruh JR, Slaughter BD, Jaspersen SL. Functional Analysis of the Yeast LINC Complex Using Fluctuation Spectroscopy and Super-Resolution Imaging. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1840:137. Pubmed

70. Wang Y, Yu Z, Cahoon CK, Parmely T, Thomas N, Unruh JR, Slaughter BD, Hawley RS. Combined expansion microscopy with structured illumination microscopy for analyzing protein complexes. Nat Protoc. 2018;13:1869. Pubmed

69. Khan T, Kandola TS, Wu J, Venkatesan S, Ketter E, Lange JJ, Rodríguez Gama A, Box A, Unruh JR, Cook M, Halfmann R. Quantifying Nucleation In Vivo Reveals the Physical Basis of Prion-like Phase Behavior. Mol Cell. 2018;71:155. Pubmed

68. Sing TL, Hung MP, Ohnuki S, Suzuki G, San Luis BJ, McClain M, Unruh JR, Yu Z, Ou J, Marshall-Sheppard J, Huh WK, Costanzo M, Boone C, Ohya Y, Jaspersen SL, Brown GW. The budding yeast RSC complex maintains ploidy by promoting spindle pole body insertion. J Cell Biol. 2018;217:2445. Pubmed

67. Kim SJ, Fernandez-Martinez J, Nudelman I, Shi Y, Zhang W, Raveh B, Herricks T, Slaughter BD, Hogan JA, Upla P, Chemmama IE, Pellarin R, Echeverria I, Shivaraju M, Chaudhury AS, Wang J, Williams R, Unruh JR, Greenberg CH, Jacobs EY, Yu Z, de la Cruz MJ, Mironska R, Stokes DL, Aitchison JD, Jarrold MF, Gerton JL, Ludtke SJ, Akey CW, Chait BT, Sali A, Rout MP. Integrative structure and functional anatomy of a nuclear pore complex. Nature. 2018; 555(7697):475-482. Pubmed

66. Dhatchinamoorthy K, Shivaraju M, Lange JJ, Rubinstein B, Unruh JR, Slaughter BD, Gerton JL. Structural plasticity of the living kinetochore. J Cell Biol. 2017; 216(11):3551-3570. Pubmed

65. De Kumar B, Parker HJ, Paulson A, Parrish ME, Pushel I, Singh NP, Zhang Y, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Florens L, Zeitlinger J, Krumlauf R. HOXA1 and TALE proteins display cross-regulatory interactions and form a combinatorial binding code on HOXA1 targets. Genome Res. 2017;27(9):1501-1512. Pubmed

64. Cahoon CK, Yu Z, Wang Y, Guo F, Unruh JR, Slaughter BD, Hawley RS. Superresolution expansion microscopy reveals the three-dimensional organization of the Drosophila synaptonemal complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114(33):E6857-E6866. Pubmed

63. Xu B, Li H, Perry JM, Singh VP, Unruh J, Yu Z, Zakari M, McDowell W, Li L, Gerton JL. Ribosomal DNA copy number loss and sequence variation in cancer. PLoS Genet. 2017; 13(6):e1006771. Pubmed

62. Bestul AJ, Yu Z, Unruh JR, Jaspersen SL. Molecular model of fission yeast centrosome assembly determined by superresolution imaging. J Cell Biol. 2017;216(8):2409-2424. Pubmed

61. De Kumar B, Parker HJ, Parrish ME, Lange JJ, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Paulson A, Krumlauf R. Dynamic regulation of Nanog and stem cell-signaling pathways by Hoxa1 during early neuro-ectodermal differentiation of ES cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114(23):5838-5845. Pubmed

60. Weems JC, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Boeing S, Hall SM, McLaird MB, Yasukawa T, Aso T, Svejstrup JQ, Conaway JW, Conaway RC. Cockayne Syndrome B Protein Regulates Recruitment of the Elongin A Ubiquitin Ligase to Sites of DNA Damage. J Biol Chem. 2017; 292:6431. Pubmed

59. Smoyer CJ, Katta SS, Gardner JM, Stoltz L, McCroskey S, Bradford WD, McClain M, Smith SE, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Jaspersen SL. Analysis of membrane proteins localizing to the inner nuclear envelope in living cells.J Cell Biol. 2016 215:575-590. Pubmed

58. Li L, Sanchez CP, Slaughter BD, Zhao Y, Khan MR, Unruh JR, Rubinstein B, Si K. A Putative Biochemical Engram of Long-Term Memory.Curr Biol. 2016 26:3134-3156. Pubmed

57. Gilmore JM, Sardiu ME, Groppe BD, Thornton JL, Liu X, Dayebgadoh G, Banks CA, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Workman JL, Florens L, Washburn MP. WDR76 Co-Localizes with Heterochromatin Related Proteins and Rapidly Responds to DNA Damage.PLoS One. 2016 11:e0155492. Pubmed

56. Hervás R, Li L, Majumdar A, Fernández-Ramírez Mdel C, Unruh JR, Slaughter BD, Galera-Prat A, Santana E, Suzuki M, Nagai Y, Bruix M, Casas-Tintó, Menéndez M, Laurents DV, Si K, Carrión-Vázquez M. Molecular Basis of Orb2 Amyloidogenesis and Blockade of Memory Consolidation.PLoS Biol. 2016 14:e1002361. Pubmed

55. Kim S, Ma L, Unruh J, McKinney S, Yu CR. Intracellular chloride concentration of the mouse vomeronasal neuron. BMC Neurosci. 2015;16:90. Pubmed

54. Potapova TA, Unruh JR, Box AC, Bradford WD, Seidel CW, Slaughter BD, Sivagnanam S, Wu Y, Li R. Karyotyping human and mouse cells using probes from single-sorted chromosomes and open source software. Biotechniques. 2015 59:335-46. Pubmed

53. Khan MR, Li L, Pérez-Sánchez C, Saraf A, Florens L, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Si K. Amyloidogenic Oligomerization Transforms Drosophila Orb2 from a Translation Repressor to an Activator. Cell. 2015 163:1468-83. Pubmed

52. Liang K, Woodfin AR, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Box AC, Rickels RA, Gao X, Haug JS, Jaspersen SL, Shilatifard A. Mitotic Transcriptional Activation: Clearance of Actively Engaged Pol II via Transcriptional Elongation Control in Mitosis. Mol Cell. 2015;60:435-45. Pubmed

51. Katta SS, Chen J, Gardner JM, Friederichs JM, Smith SE, Gogol M, Unruh JR, Slaughter BD, Jaspersen SL. Sec66-Dependent Regulation of Yeast Spindle Pole Body Duplication Thorugh Pom152. Genetics. 2015;201:1479-95. Pubmed

50. Burns S, Avena JS, Unruh JR, Yu Z, Smith SE, Slaughter BD, Winey M, Jaspersen SL. Structured illumination with particle averaging reveals novel roles for yeast centrosome components during duplication [published ahead of print September 16 2015]. eLife. 2015;4. Pubmed

49. De Kumar B, Parrish ME, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Gogol M, Seidel C, Paulson A, Li H, Gaudenz K, Peak A, McDowell W, Fleharty B, Ahn Y, Lin C, Smith E, Shilatifard A, Krumlauf R. Analysis of dynamic changes in retinoid-induced transcription and epigenetic profiles of murine Hox clusters in ES cells. Genome Res. 2015;25:1229-1243. Pubmed

48. Lake CM, Nielsen RJ, Guo F, Unruh JR, Slaughter BD, Hawley RS. Vilya, a component of the recombination nodule, is required for meiotic double-strand break formation in Drosophila. eLife. 2015;4. doi: 10.7554/eLife.08287. Pubmed

47. Weems JC, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Hall SM, McLaird MB, Gilmore JM, Washburn MP, Florens L, Yasukawa T, Aso T, Conaway JW, Conaway RC. Assembly of the Elongin A Ubiquitin Ligase Is Regulated by Genotoxic and Other Stresses. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:15030-15041. Pubmed

46. Chen J, Smoyer CJ, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Jaspersen SL. The SUN protein Mps3 controls Ndc1 distribution and function on the nuclear membrane. J Cell Biol. 2014;204:523-539. Pubmed

45. Collins KA, Unruh JR, Slaughter BD, Yu Z, Lake CM, Nielsen RJ, Box KS, Miller DE, Blumenstiel JP, Perera AG, Malanowski KE, Hawley RS. Corolla is a novel protein that contributes to the architecture of the synaptonemal complex of Drosophila. Genetics. 2014;198:219-228. Pubmed

44. Harris B, Bose T, Lee KK, Wang F, Lu S, Ross RT, Zhang Y, French SL, Beyer AL, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Gerton JL. Cohesion promotes nucleolar structure and function. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:337-346. Pubmed

43. Hollopeter G, Lange JJ, Zhang Y, Vu TN, Gu M, Ailion M, Lambie EJ, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Florens L, Jorgensen EM. The membrane-associated proteins FCHo and SGIP are allosteric activators of the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex. eLife. 2014;3:e03648. Pubmed

42. Smith SE, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR. Imaging methodologies for systems biology. Cell Adh & Migr. 2014;8:468-477. Pubmed

41. Zhou C, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Guo F, Yu Z, Mickey K, Narkar A, Ross RT, McClain M, Li R. Organelle-based aggregation and retention of damaged proteins in asymmetrically dividing cells. Cell. 2014;159:530-542. Pubmed

40. Bonner AM, Hughes SE, Chisholm JA, Smith SK, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Collins KA, Friederichs JM, Florens L, Swanson SK, Pelot MC, Miller DE, Washburn MP, Jaspersen SL, Hawley RS. Binding of Drosophila Polo kinase to its regulator Matrimony is noncanonical and involves two separate functional domains. PNAS. 2013;110:E1222-1231.

39. Lange JJ, Wood CJ, Marshall WA, Maddera LE, Yu QE, Bradford WD, Slaughter BR, Unruh JR, Wiegraebe W. Correction of bleaching artifacts in high content fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (HCS-FCS) data. Proceedings SPIE. 2013;859006. doi:10.1117/12.2005205. Pubmed

38. Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Das A, Smith SE, Rubinstein B, Li R. Non-uniform membrane diffusion enables steady-state cell polarization via vesicular trafficking. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1380. Pubmed

37. Smith SE, Rubinstein B, Mendes Pinto I, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Li R. Independence of symmetry breaking on Bem1-mediated autocatalytic activation of Cdc42. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:1091-1106. Pubmed

36. Unruh JR, Slaughter BD, Li R. Quality Control: Putting Protein Aggregates in a Bind. Curr Biol. 2013;23:R74-R76. Pubmed

35. Yi K, Rubinstein B, Unruh JR, Guo F, Slaughter BD, Li R. Sequential actin-based pushing forces drive meiosis I chromosome migration and symmetry breaking in oocytes. J Cell Biol. 2013;200:567-576. Pubmed

34. Bose T, Lee KK, Lu S, Xu B, Harris B, Slaughter B, Unruh J, Garrett A, McDowell W, Box A, Li H, Peak A, Ramachandran S, Seidel C, Gerton JL. Cohesin proteins promote ribosomal RNA production and protein translation in yeast and human cells. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002749. Pubmed

33. Das A, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Bradford WD, Alexander R, Rubinstein B, Li R. Flippase-mediated phospholipid asymmetry promotes fast Cdc42 recycling in dynamic maintenance of cell polarity. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:304-310. Pubmed

32. Ghosh S, Gardner JM, Smoyer CJ, Friederichs JM, Unruh JR, Slaughter BD, Alexander R, Chisholm RD, Lee KK, Workman JL, Jaspersen SL. Acetylation of the SUN protein Mps3 by Eco1 regulates its function in nuclear organization. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2546-2559. Pubmed

31. Majumdar A, Cesario WC, White-Grindley E, Jiang H, Ren F, Khan MR, Li L, Choi EM, Kannan K, Guo F, Unruh J, Slaughter B, Si K. Critical Role of Amyloid-like Oligomers of Drosophila Orb2 in the Persistence of Memory. Cell. 2012;148:515-529. Pubmed

30. Mendes Pinto I, Rubinstein B, Kucharavy A, Unruh J, Li R. Actin Depolymerization Drives Actomyosin Ring Contraction during Budding Yeast Cytokinesis. Dev Cell. 2012;22:1247-1260. Pubmed

29. Shivaraju M, Unruh JR, Slaughter BD, Mattingly M, Berman J, Gerton JL. Cell-cycle-coupled structural oscillation of centromeric nucleosomes in yeast. Cell. 2012;150:304-316. Pubmed

28. Suraneni P, Rubinstein B, Unruh JR, Durnin M, Hanein D, Li R. The Arp2/3 complex is required for lamellipodia extension and directional fibroblast cell migration. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:239-251. Pubmed

27. Xu XP, Rouiller I, Slaughter BD, Egile C, Kim E, Unruh JR, Fan X, Pollard TD, Li R, Hanein D, Volkmann N. Three-dimensional reconstructions of Arp2/3 complex with bound nucleation promoting factors. EMBO J. 2012;31:236-247. Pubmed

26. Friederichs JM, Ghosh S, Smoyer CJ, McCroskey S, Miller BD, Weaver KJ, Delventhal KM, Unruh J, Slaughter BD, Jaspersen SL. The SUN Protein Mps3 Is Required for Spindle Pole Body Insertion into the Nuclear Membrane and Nuclear Envelope Homeostasis. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002365. Pubmed

25. Hughes SE, Beeler JS, Seat A, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Bauerly E, Matthies HJ, Hawley RS. Gamma-Tubulin Is Required for Bipolar Spindle Assembly and for Proper Kinetochore Microtubule Attachments during Prometaphase I in Drosophila Oocytes. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002209.

24. Parrish M, Unruh J, Krumlauf R. BAC modification through serial or simultaneous use of CRE/Lox technology. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:924068. Pubmed

23. Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Li R. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and imaging methods for examination of dynamic protein interactions in yeast. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;759:283-306. Pubmed

22. Wood C, Huff J, Marshall W, Yu EQ, Unruh J, Slaughter B, Wiegraebe W. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy as tool for high-content-screening in yeast (HCS-FCS). Proceedings of the SPIE. 2011;7905, 79050H. Pubmed

21. Yi K, Unruh JR, Deng M, Slaughter BD, Rubinstein B, Li R. Dynamic maintenance of asymmetric meiotic spindle position through Arp2/3-complex-driven cytoplasmic streaming in mouse oocytes. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1252-1258. Pubmed

20. Zhou C, Slaughter BD, Unruh JR, Eldakak A, Rubinstein B, Li R. Motility and segregation of hsp104-associated protein aggregates in budding yeast. Cell. 2011;147:1186-1196. Pubmed

19. Kuczera, K.; Unruh, J. R.; Johnson, C. K.; Jas G. S. Reorientations of Aromatic Amino Acids and Their Side Chain Models: Anisotropy Measurements and Molecular Dynamics Simulations. J. Phys. Chem. A. 2010. 114:133. Pubmed

18. Unruh, J. R.; Kuczera, K.; Johnson, C. K. Conformational Heterogeneity of a Leucine Enkephalin Analog in Aqueous Solution and SDS Micelles: Comparison of Time-Resolved FRET and Molecular Dynamics Simulations. J. Phys. Chem. B. 2009, 113:14381. Pubmed

17. Raub, C. B.; Unruh, J. R.; Suresh, V.; Krasieva, T.; Lindmo, T.; Gratton, E.; Tromberg, B. J.; George, S. C. Image Correlation Spectroscopy of Multiphoton Images Correlates with Collagen Mechanical Properties. Biophys. J.  2008, 94:2361. Pubmed

16. Unruh, J. R.; Gratton, E. Analysis of Molecular Concentration and Brightness from Fluorescence Fluctuation Data with an Electron Multiplied CCD Camera. Biophys. J. 2008. 95:5385. Pubmed

15. Unruh, J. R.; Liyanage, M. R.; Johnson, C. K. Tyrosyl Rotamer Interconversion Rates and the Fluorescence Decays of N-Acetyltyrosinamide and Short Tyrosyl Peptides. J. Phys. Chem. B. 2007, 111:5494.

14. Johnson, C. K.; Slaughter, B. D.; Unruh, J. R.; Price, E. S. Fluorescence Probes of Protein Dynamics and Conformations in Freely Diffusing Molecules. Single-Molecule Resonance Energy Transfer and Time-Resolved Fluorescence Methods. In Reviews in Fluorescence, C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, Eds. (Springer, New York, 2006) Vol. 3, pp 239-259. Pubmed

13. Kamerzell, T. J.; Unruh, J. R.; Johnson, C. K.; Middaugh, C. R. Conformational Flexibility, Hydration and State Parameter Fluctuations of Fibroblast Growth Factor-10: Effects of Ligand Binding. Biochemistry. 2006, 45:15288. Pubmed

12. Unruh, J. R.; Price, E. S.; Molla, R. G.; Hui, R.; Johnson. C. K. Evaluation of a Femtosecond Fiber Laser for Two-Photon Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy. Microsc. Res. Tech. 2006, 69:891. Pubmed

11. Unruh, J. R.; Price, E. S.; Molla, R. G.; Stehno-Bittel, L.; Johnson, C. K.; Hui, R. Two-photon microscopy with wavelength Switchable fiber laser excitation. Opt. Express. 2006, 14:9825. Pubmed

10. Wang, M.; Unruh, J. R.; Johnson, C. K.; Kuczera, K.; Schowen, R. L.; Borchardt, R. T. Effects of Ligand Binding and Oxidation on Hinge-Bending Motions in S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine Hydrolase. Biochemistry. 2006, 45:7778. Pubmed

9. Gokulrangan, G.; Unruh, J. R.; Holub, D. F.; Ingram, B.; Johnson, C. K.; Wilson, G. S. DNA Aptamer-Based Bioanalysis of IgE by Fluorescence Anisotropy. Anal. Chem. 2005, 77:1963. Pubmed

8. Slaughter, B. D.; Unruh, J. R.; Allen, M. W.; Bieber-Urbauer, R. J.; Johnson, C. K. Conformational Substates of Calmodulin Revealed by Single-Pair Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: Influence of Solution Conditions and Oxidative Modification. Biochemistry. 2005, 44:3694. Pubmed

7. Slaughter, B. D.; Unruh, J. R.; Price, E. S.; Huynh, J. L.; Bieber-Urbauer, R. J.; Johnson, C. K. Sampling Unfolding Intermediates in Calmodulin by Single-Molecule Spectroscopy. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127:12107. Pubmed

6. Tremblay, J. M.; Unruh, J. R.; Johnson, C. K.; Yarbrough, L. R. Mechanism of Interaction of PITPα with Membranes: Conformational Changes in the C-terminus Associated with Membrane Binding. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2005, 444:112.

5. Unruh, J. R.; Gokulrangan, G.; Lushington, G. H.; Johnson, C. K.; Wilson, G. S. Orientational Dynamics and Dye-DNA Interactions in a Dye-Labeled DNA Aptamer. Biophys. J. 2005, 88:3455. Pubmed

4. Unruh, J. R.; Gokulrangan, G.; Wilson, G. S; Johnson, C. K. Fluorescence Properties of Fluorescein, Tetramethylrhodamine, and Texas Red Linked to a DNA Aptamer. Photochem. Photobiol. 2005, 81:682.

3. Slaughter, B. D.; Allen, M. W.; Unruh, J. R.; Bieber-Urbauer, R. J.; Johnson, C. K. Single-Molecule Resonance Energy Transfer and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy of Calmodulin in Solution. J. Phys. Chem. B. 2004, 108:10388. Pubmed

2. Allen, M. W.; Unruh, J. R.; Slaughter, B. D.; Pyszczynski, S. J.; Hellwig, T. R.; Kamerzell, T. J.; Johnson, C. K. Spectroscopy and Photophysics of Indoline and Indoline-2-Carboxylic Acid. J. Phys. Chem. A. 2003, 107:5660. Pubmed

1. Bothwell, T. G.; Unruh, J. R.; Johnson, C. K. Tyrosine and Peptide Reorientational Mobility in Polymer Solutions: Time-Dependent Fluorescence Anisotropy Measurements. Biopolymers. 2003, 69:351. Pubmed